terça-feira, maio 18, 2021

A última forte erupção do vulcão do Monte Santa Helena foi há 41 anos

O Monte Santa Helena (em inglês Mount St. Helens) é um vulcão activo que fica no sudoeste do estado norte-americano de Washington, 154 quilómetros a sul de Seattle e a 80 a nordeste de Portland.
Após 127 anos de inactividade o vulcão entrou violentamente em erupção no dia 18 de maio de 1980, às 08.32 horas, locais (hora do Pacífico), matando 57 pessoas e ferindo muitas outras.
Após um tremor de terra de magnitude 5,1 na Escala de Richter, o lado norte do monte entrou em violenta erupção, provocando danos ambientais numa área de 550 km². A cinza emanada da erupção provocou problemas respiratórios nos habitantes até 1.550 quilómetros de distância do vulcão.
Como resultado da explosão a altura da cratera do vulcão diminuiu cerca de 400 metros, passando de 2.950 para 2.549 metros, e teve a sua largura aumentada de cerca de dois quilómetros.
Tectónica de Placas dos vulcões da Cordilheira das Cascatas
Map of eruption deposits

In 1980, a major volcanic eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens, a volcano located in Washington, in the United States. The eruption (which was a VEI 5 event) was the only significant one to occur in the contiguous 48 US states since the 1915 eruption of Lassen Peak in California. The eruption was preceded by a two-month series of earthquakes and steam-venting episodes, caused by an injection of magma at shallow depth below the volcano that created a huge bulge and a fracture system on Mount St. Helens' north slope.
Prior to the eruption, USGS scientists convinced local authorities to close Mount St. Helens to the general public and to maintain the closure in spite of pressure to re-open it; their work saved thousands of lives. An earthquake at 8:32:17 a.m. PDT (UTC−7) on Sunday, May 18, 1980, caused the entire weakened north face to slide away, suddenly exposing the partly molten, gas- and steam-rich rock in the volcano to lower pressure. The rock responded by exploding a hot mix of lava and pulverized older rock toward Spirit Lake so fast that it overtook the avalanching north face.
An eruption column rose 80,000 feet (24,400 m) into the atmosphere and deposited ash in 11 U.S. states. At the same time, snow, ice and several entire glaciers on the volcano melted, forming a series of large lahars (volcanic mudslides) that reached as far as the Columbia River, nearly 50 miles (80 km) to the southwest. Less severe outbursts continued into the next day only to be followed by other large but not as destructive eruptions later in 1980.
Fifty-seven people (including innkeeper Harry R. Truman, photographer Reid Blackburn and geologist David A. Johnston) perished. Hundreds of square miles were reduced to wasteland causing over a billion U.S. dollars in damage ($2.74 billion in 2011 dollars), thousands of game animals killed, and Mount St. Helens was left with a crater on its north side. At the time of the eruption, the summit of the volcano was owned by the Burlington Northern Railroad, but afterward the land passed to the United States Forest Service. The area was later preserved, as it was, in the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument.

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